Here’s what we know today about the dangers of vaping

Here's what we know today about the dangers of vaping

Florida International University psychologists Elisa Trucco and Matthew Sutherland are in a race to find answers about the impact of e-cigarettes on the adolescent brain. Calls to the FIU Center for Children and Families have been increasing as concerned parents are trying to understand the effects of e-cigarettes. Trucco and Sutherland are leading one of the first studies to examine decision-making as it relates to vaping devices.

E-cigarette use, or vaping, among teens has skyrocketed in recent years. According to the surgeon general, vaping among high school students increased by 900 percent from 2011 to 2015. The nation is now scrambling to find effective ways to discourage vaping and educate misinformed teens and their parents on the dangers of e-cigarette use in what the FDA is calling an epidemic.

Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of nicotine because their brains are still rapidly developing, according to Trucco and Sutherland. Research is critical to help clinicians improve prevention programming and assist policymakers in deciding how to continue regulating these products, they said. Their current project—Antecedents and Consequences of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ACE)—is funded by the National Institutes of Health as part of a collaborative research study between the FIU Center for Children and Families and the Research Center in Minority Institutions. They are studying what influences an adolescent’s decision to use or not use e-cigarettes, vaping devices or other electronic nicotine delivery systems and how that decision may affect other risky behaviors and the developing brain.

While Trucco and Sutherland are currently recruiting participants for the study, there are some facts they want parents to know.

Most e-cigarettes contain the highly addictive drug nicotine

Most types of e-cigarettes, including the most popular brand Juul, contain nicotine, the addictive drug found in traditional tobacco cigarettes. One Juul pod contains roughly the same amount of nicotine found in 20 cigarettes (or one pack). Nicotine is highly addictive and can cause brain changes leading to compulsive use of e-cigarettes.

Long-term effects of vaping are unknown

Although e-cigarettes were developed in part to help adult smokers cut their tobacco-use and to provide a “healthier” alternative, no study has yet been conducted that can provide information on the long-term effects of e-cigarette use. Due to the recent dramatic increase in e-cigarette use, preliminary findings are now showing that there is a negative effect on heart and lung function associated with e-cigarette use. However, there is still no definitive answer on whether these risks outweigh the benefits of switching from traditional tobacco cigarettes.

Vaping leads to higher risk of cigarette smoking in teens

Teenage e-cigarette users are actually at a higher risk of smoking tobacco cigarettes compared to non-users. More than 30 percent of adolescent e-cigarette users start smoking traditional tobacco cigarettes within six months.

Vaping can produce second-hand effects

Although e-cigarettes do not produce smoke, breathing in the second-hand vapor is not harmless. The aerosol from e-cigarettes contains many potentially harmful chemicals, including lead and other heavy metals. It also has flavorings including diacetyl, which has been linked to lung disease. The second-hand vapor can also contain nicotine, which when inhaled by non-users can increase their risk of becoming nicotine dependent. There is also the danger of third-hand exposure, which occurs when residual nicotine from the second-hand vapor remains on surfaces and is absorbed through unintentional ingestion or through the skin via contact.

[“source=cnbc”]

How many carbohydrates should I eat each day, are low carb diets safe and what foods are high in bad carbs?

THERE’S hundreds of diets out there all promising to help women lose weight and keep the pounds off.

From low-fat to high-fat, 5:2 to Atkins, it can be hard knowing what diet plan is right for you.

 Cutting out carbs completely isn't healthy

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Cutting out carbs completely isn’t healthy

How many carbohydrates should I eat each day?

Along with fats, carbs are often billed as the enemy when trying to lose weight.

But the NHS still recommends a balanced diet, even when trying to lose weight, and they stress the importance of continuing to eat carbs.

The Government’s healthy eating advice says just over a third of your diet should be made up of carbs, such as pasta, bread, rice or potatoes.

A carbohydrate is one of three macronutrients and forms a large part of our diet, the others being fat and protein.

 Eating too much of any food group will lead to weight gain

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Eating too much of any food group will lead to weight gain

Carbohydrates are important for our health and you shouldn’t cut them out of your diet completely.

They help boost energy levels, as they are the body’s main source of energy.

And they help prevent against diseases, as vegetables such as pulses and varieties of starchy food, such as potatoes, maintain good gut and bowel health.

The NHS recommends people aim for an average of 30g per day, but most only eat around 18g.

Carbs can also help you lose weight, as they contain fewer calories gram for gram than fat, and by replacing foods high in fat and sugar with fibre-rich food, the overall number of calories you eat will reduce.

 More than a third of our diets should be carbs

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More than a third of our diets should be carbs

Daily reference intakes for the average adult aged 19 to 64 are:

  • Energy: 8400kJ/2000kcal
  • Total fat: less than 70g
  • Saturates: less than 20g
  • Carbohydrate: at least 260g
  • Total sugars: 90g
  • Protein: 50g
  • Salt: less than 6g

Are low carb diets safe?

Carbohydrates themselves are not necessarily the cause of weight gain.

The NHS says there’s no evidence that eating bread and other wheat-based foods causes weight gain more than any other type of food.

If you eat more energy than your body uses, you will put on weight, regardless of what you eat.

[“Source-thesun”]